Dates, events, names
The idea of special laboratory of defense department establishment is closely connected with the name of Dmitriy Mendeleev, the outstanding scientist, leading the works on home produced blank fire powder. That time Mendeleev understood the importance of R&D related with the country defence. Professor, lieutenant general G. A. Zabudskiy, successfully realized the project, improved in 1910 by the Emperor Nikolay the Second. He was a chemist, a technologist, military engineer, the world famous expert in explosive substances, who organized and then led the central chemical-mechanical laboratory of the military department.
Then, the laboratory was named as the central scientific-and-technical laboratory instead of chemical-mechanical laboratory. It has become the special institution under the jurisdiction of the military department.
A great historical importance should be paid to the buildings of the laboratory, where the enterprise is situated nowadays. Architect V. P. Apyshkov, military engineer, the teacher of the Academy of Engineering, headed the construction works on Gospitalnaya Street. Apyshkov has designed and built some significant architecture points in St. Petersburg, contributing much in the city history.
In 1920, the Central scientific-and-technical laboratory was renamed to the State scientific-and-technical institute, headed by V. N. Ipatyev, the world famous Russian organic chemist.
Later, within the institute, the Special technical bureau (Sptecbureau) was organized for R&D of the newest scientific-and-technical achievements to the Navy. Sptecbureau was under the guidance of outstanding inventor V. I. Bekauri, appointed by the decree of the Council of People’s commissars in 1921.
During the period of 1921 — 1938, the Sptecbureau originated new perspective scientific-and-technical trends of the development of the naval equipment:
- Radio-controlled arms facilities (torpedoes, land-mines, motor torpedo-boats, flying bombs, submarines);
- Jam-proof radio communication of ships with a base and among themselves;
- Gyroscopic devices (gyro course detectors) for ships and boats.
As the result of this work the jam-resistant radio communication has been implemented for the fleet, a quite number of torpedoes entered into the Navy service, the torpedo-carrying air force was set in the naval structure and the first groups of air-transported troops were established. Implementation of these developments has played a significant role in the victory in the Great Patriotic war.
The following scientists and designers worked in the Sptecbureau: academicians V. N. Ipatyev, V. F. Mitkevitch, professors G. A. Zabudskiy, M. M. Tikhvinskiy, I. P. Grave and A. F. Shorin. The Sptecbureau work was discussed and led by the outstanding scientists and commanders and the state officials: М.v. Frunze, S. S. Kamenev, I. S. Unshkhlit, A. I. Berg, B. M. Shaposhnikov, М. I. Kalinin, K. E. Voroshilov, A. M. Mikoyan, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, M. N. Tukhachevskiy and others.
In 1939 the Sptecbureau was reorganized into the scientific research institute of naval telemechanics and automation -SRI-49. During the period of 1937–1945 SRI-49 was headed by K.V. Grudnitskiy, N. D. Nagavkin, M. L. Medvedev. In those difficult times, they managed to not only maintain the institute but also rebuild it to the needs of the front.
During the Great Patriotic war, many Sptecbureau achievements were applied:
- Radio-controlled land-mines blew up in Kiev, Gatchina, Kharkov and many other strategic centres of German troops location;
- Homing radio systems of aircrafts functioned properly;
- Torpedo-bombers successfully worked in the Baltic and in the Northern Sea;
- Submarines were equipped with the depth stabilizing system «Sprut»;
- Fire and artillery weapons of the Leningrad front had precise optical sights.
In post-war period, new scientific activities were introduced:
- Control systems for Anti-ship missiles (ASM) (on-board and shipborne);
- Systems of gyroscopic command devices for the surface ballistic missiles (BM) ;
- Control systems for bomb and torpedo weapons.
1947 — the beginning of the development of radar engineering. The institute was assigned to be the leading developer of radar stations (RS) for submarines. So the RS practically for all the submarine types and generations were developed: «Flag», «Albatros», «Kasatka», «Molniya», «Zaliv-Skala», «Chibis-Bukhta», «Korma» (with high stealthiness due to the use of the quasicontinuos signal), «Radian», «Radian-U».
A number of surface surveillance and target designation (TD) RS is developed for surface ships: «Zarya», «Zarya-Chaika», «Reya», «Rangout», «Graviy», «Garpun-Bal», 5Р-20КА, 5Р-20К.
Since 1952 by the Institute in conjunction with the CCB «Pole» and plant named after A. A. Kulakov developed and transferred to the Navy dozens of systems of the fire control antisubmarine weapons and defense weapons for the various projects of surface ships, submarines and boats including: «Leningrad», «Brest», «Sprut», «Typhon», «Accord», «Purga», «Onega», «Lakhna».
1956 — the beginning of the development of the control systems (CS) for anti-ship cruise missiles «P-6». The complex of works included the development of the on-board equipment, of the shipborne equipment for a missile prelaunch and launch, of shipborne TD RS and of ground-based monitoring equipment.
Later, the institute together with NPO «Mashinostroyenia» developed the CS complexes for the ASM «Amethyst», «P-500», «Vulcan» and «Granit» (ASM «Amethyst» and «Granit» are the first missiles of underwater launch and «fire and forget» principle). Both enterprises continue developing the complexes for ASM of the 5-th generation placed on both submarines and surface ships. The modern vessels: the submarine «Antay», the aircraft carrier «Admiral Kuznetsov» and the cruiser «Petr Velikiy» are armed with the MC «Granit» having no analogues in the world.
1966 — according to the Decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR the SRI-49 was given the new name — the Central scientific research institute of devices and automatic machinery.
1967 — the institute started developing the special equipment for the monitoring of the hydrophysical fields of the water environment in seas and oceans. Two generations of the equipment put into operation by the Navy are developed: «MNK-200» and «MNK-300».
During 1947–1968, the institute has completed the development of the command gyroscopic instruments for the country’s first land and the world’s first maritime ballistic missile systems «R-1», «R-2», «R-3».
1971 – our days
1971 — according to the Decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR the previous name of the institute was changed into the Central scientific and research institute «Granit».
For the great contribution into the development of the new types of special techniques according to the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the enterprise was awarded with the Order of Red Banner of Labour (1961) and the Order of Lenin (1985). JSC «Severniy press» was also awarded with Order of the Red Banner of Labor.
During that period, the institute was headed by:
- N. A. Charin (1946–1963),
- G. N. Samokhvalov (1963–1965),
- V. V. Pavlov (1965–1985),
- I. Y. Krivtsov (1985–1992)
- V. A. Nikoltsev (1992–2005),
- G. A. Korzhavin (2005–nowdays).
During the period from 1971 to 1995 JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron», based on a huge scientific and practical foundation for advanced developments, actively pursued the development of radioelectronic equipment in the following areas:
- Anti-ship missiles control systems for surface ships of the main classes and nuclear-powered attack submarines of the Russian Navy armament. Among these developments are the control system of the RCC complexes «P-6», «Bazalt», «Vulcan», the control system for the first in the world ASM with underwater launch «Amethyst» and the universal system «Granit». Most of Navy ships, including heavy aircraft carrier of the type «Kiev», «Admiral Kuznetsov» heavy cruisers «Peter the Great» missile cruisers «Marshal Ustinov» and many others, are equipped with this type of armament.
- Gyroscopic devices of the control systems of the first in the world ballistic submarine-launched missiles, and ship control system with ballistic missiles for systems «D-2», «D-4», «D-5». The development of these complexes was carried out under the leadership of General designer academic S. P. Korolev and chief designer academic V. P. Makeev.
- Radar for submarines of all generations and classes, including gross submarines «Akula». These developments remain unsurpassed, and the company is the sole developer of such equipment.
- Control systems of anti-submarine warfare of the Russian Navy surface vessels.
- Radar systems of surface environment surveillance and target designation to missile weapons.
- Anti-rolling devices, motor telegraph, automatic pilots for ships and vessels of all classes of the Navy.
Since 1996, the company began to develop military-technical cooperation with foreign States, tapping into the world market.
On February 14, 1997 by decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 175, the enterprise has the status of a Federal scientific and production center.
The company is included in the list of national strategic and backbone enterprises according to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 4 August 2004.
In 2006 JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron» was established through the restructuring of Central research Institute «Granite».
According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation V. V. Putin dated March 21, 2007 subsidiaries were integrated in JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron»: JSC «Rawenstvo», JSC «Rawenstvo-Service», JSC «Severniy press», JSC «Zavod Kulakova», JSC «Saratovski radiopribornyi zavod», JSC «Petrovsky electromechanical zavod «Molot».
Great personal contribution to the development of the company was given by the General Director of JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron» Korzhavin Georgii Anatolyevich.
G. A. Korzhavin — doctor of engineering, professor, Full-fledged member of Russian academy of electro-technical science and Saint Petersburg academy of engineering, honored developer of Russian Federation, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Missile and Ammunition Sciences, not only continues the glorious traditions of the best schools in the world of technical engineering, but also makes a significant contribution to the modernization of technology, ensuring high scientific and technical level of development of the enterprise.
Since 2000-ies, the company has developed a vehicular control system advanced systems anti-ship cruise missiles with wide application of modern information technologies, computer technology and microelectronics; created radar systems for surface surveillance and target designation of marine weapons (missile and torpedo); introduced the latest technology, modern components and the latest achievements in the field of software. Active work is conducted to improve onboard control systems for supersonic anti-ship missiles for missile weapons «BrahMos» and «Yakhont», which, having become world famous, brought the well-deserved authority to JSC «Concern „Granit-Electron“. Works on development of control systems for hypersonic AMS of 5th generation is underway.
As the result of this work, the company has developed a variety of information management radio electronic systems („Garpun-Bal-E“, R43, 5P-20KA, 3C30, KASU 3Р-60UE», КASU antisubmarine warfare «Purga», KASU 3A-55H, homing head 3B-55H), radar detection of surface targets and navigation of submarines МРК-50УЭ for foreign states Naval ships. The Concern continues to deliver them successfully. In the framework of the joint Indo-Russian project «BrahMos» the Concern supplies on-board automatic control systems, including high intellectual homing heads (seekers).
Implementation of MTC programs have reached a new level, as in March 2017 of JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron» received a certificate of the Federal military-technical cooperation for the implementation of foreign trade activity concerning military products. Obtaining this certificate allows the company to work directly with foreign customers in after-sales service, including upgrading of all previously delivered systems, supply of spare parts and components, in order to make more effective process of the operational maintenance and repair of the equipment abroad.
The enterprise’s first in the world R&D
The control systems for cruise missiles
1955 — pioneer in sub-missile launch of «R-11 FM» ballistic missile with a system of onboard gyroscopes and shipborne control systems (designed by V. N. Chelomey, N. A. Charin).
1964 — «P-6» missiles system was assigned to submarines of the Russian Navy. The world’s first time development of «P-6» has solved the task of anti-ship salvo firing creation for fighting with naval groups on the distance range beyond their security zone (designed by M. V. Jackowski, I. Y. Krivtsov).
1968 — cruise missiles control system «Amethyst» was commissioned to Russian Navy submarines. With the development of this system, the problem of anti-submarine missile weaponry with underwater missile launch, high stealth and suddenness of attack was solved first in the world. (designed by B. A. Mitrofanov, S. T. Zaytzev, A. M. Kamaevvsky).
1974 — development of missile control system «Bazalt» for submarines and surface ships (designed by V. N. Yakovlev, A.V. Chizhov, B. M. Goldin, B. L. Godlinik, V. A. Chervinskii).
1983 — universal control system of missile weapon «Granit» for submarines and naval surface ships was commissioned to Russian Navy. «Granit» is the first in the world complex of operation designation effectively solving the problem of fighting with large groups of ships marine theatre of war (designed by v. P. Golovanov, N. M. Mozzhuhin, A. M. Kamayevskii, V. A. Nikoltsev, v. S. Bogdanov, Y. F. Podoplyokin, G. A. Korzhavin).
1984 — control systems in the system «Vulcan», missile weapon with high jam- proof and offline selectivity, were put into service (desighned by V. N. Yakovlev, A.V. Chizhov, B. L. Goldinik, S. I. Chervyakov).
1990 — for the first time in world practice, was created experimental sample of the multi-channel homing head, including radar, radio-directional and active laser channel, which provides guidance missiles in the most vulnerable place of purpose (chief designer of the laser seeker S. N. Sharov).
2002 — for develpment of control system for 4th generation anti-ship cruise missile group of authors (designers) was awarded by the Prize of Government of the Russian Federation (desighned by Y. F. Podoplyokin, V. N. Kulikov, I. V. Simanovskii, E. S. Baskovich, E. A. Voynov,V. N. Yakovlev,V. A. Konoplev).
2003 — the first launch of «BrahMos» with Indian spacecraft «Rajput». The main advantages of missiles «BrahMos», developed as Russian cruise missile Yakhont, are high speed, variety of possible tactical schemes and methods of application, the compatibility of various missiles (sea, submarine, air and shore) based types.
In 2003, group of designers of homing head for anti-ship cruise missile «BrahMos» was awarded by the award named after V. N. Chelomei (designed by Y. F. Podoplyokin, V. S. Andrievski, V. A. Nikoltsev, E. A. Voynov).
In 2004, for development of control system for anti-ship cruise missile «BrahMos» group of designers was awarded by the award named after v. N. Chelomei (designed by G. A. Korzhavin, V. G. Bogdanov, I. V. Simanovskii, V. N. Yakovlev, Y. V. Levi).
1947 — first special radar system «Flag», «Chibis», «Zaliv-Skala» on all classes submarine, from the first post war diesel atomic submarines of strategic purpose, equipping (designed by A. S. Polyansky, A. S. Chefranov). Then there was the development of radar systems «Albatros», «Kasatka», «Radian», and «Radian-E».
1949 — first developed indicator «Palma» for impulse radar systems provided alignment of image on radar system indicator with special navigation map for all surface vessels (designed by E. L. Zlatkin).
1955 — development of radar system «Rungout» to equip missile boats with missile weapon complex «P-15». Over the horizon wave propagation effect allowing to provide target designation on the specified ranges was used for the first time in the Navy. (designed by V.A. Kucherov).
Since the late 1990s, the development of modern export submarines radar integrated system КРМ-66Э of non-intrusive type and equipment of signals from external electronic devices reception and processing of unified periscope system «Parus-98E» (chief designers — V.P. Ivanov, A.S. Zagustin).
Since the 2000s, the development of radar in the composition of the coastal missile complex «Bal-E» using the latest achievements of functional microelectronics and computer facilities (chief designer — V.P. Ivanov).
2007 — group of designers of radar system «3C-25E» for surface ships (G.A. Korzhavin, Y.F. Podoplyokin, V.P. Ivanov, A.F. Krivtsov) was awarded by National prize «Golden idea».
Anti-submarine weapon fire control systems
1967 — development of fire control system «Sprut» became the first unified control system of all anti-submarine weapons (designed by C. L. Kaplitsky, A. A. Tulaev).
1980 — computing machine accord providing solution of shooting task for all types of anti-submarine weapon and anti-submarine protection weapon was first applied in fire control system «Accord» (designed by A. A. Tulaev).
1985 — fire control system «Lakhna». The principles introduction of creating basic fire control systems based on modern software, the widespread introduction of the principles of redundancy, different modes of weapons’ usage (designed by I.v. Simanovsky, I. A. Vasiliev).
Development supervisors — A.I. Burtov, V.V. Savutkin.
Command gyroscopic instruments complexes for ballistic missiles control systems and gyroscopic instruments for cruise missiles
1947–1953 — development of gyroscopic control systems for ballistic missiles «R-1», «R-2», «R-3» under the guidance of chief designer S. P. Korolev (designed by S. E. Efremov, V. P. Arefyev).
Since 1950 automatic astro-navigation intercontinental cruise missile system «Burya» of strategic system «Zemlya» was developed and passed in-flight research for the first time in the world practice (designed by M.V. Keldysh, A. Y. Ishlinsky, S. A. Lavochkin, K. S. Khrustalev).
1954–1959 — development and putting into commission of gyroscopic control system «Basalt» for ballistic missile «R-11FM» (designer V. P Arefyev).
1959–1961 — development and putting into commission of gyroscopic control system «Tuf» for ballistic missile «R-13» (designer V. P. Makeev).
1958–1961 — development and putting into commission of gyroscopic control system «Korund» for ballistic missile «R-14» (designer M. K. Yangel, V. P Arefyev).
1958–1963 — development and putting into commission of gyroscopic control system «Izumrud» for ballistic missile «R-21» (designer I. K. Kibardina).
Nowadays, JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron» continues to work in the main thematic areas that emerged during the second half of the last century, in order to provide the Russian Navy with modern developments, as well as continuing interaction with the Navy of a number of foreign countries. The company is also working on the creation of fundamentally new types of weapons for submarines, which have no analogues in world practice and enhanced efficiency.
Designers and developers of military equipment of JSC «Concern «Granit-Electron» were awarded by awards for development of radar and control systems:
- Lenin Prize — 20;
- State (including Stalin) Prize — 69;
- Prizes of the Government of the Russian Federation — 14;
- Prizes of the Government of Saint-Petersburg — 1;
- Academician V.N. Chelomey Prize — 13;
- The Lenin Komsomol prize — 10.
- Of Lenin — 24;
- Of October revolution — 27;
- Of the Red Banner of Labour — 189;
- The Mark of honour — 263;
- Of Labour glory of II degree — 40;
- Of Labour glory of III degree — 182;
- Of honor — 1;
- Orders «For the merits towards the Motherland» of I — 1, II degree — 17;
- «For the merits towards the Navy» — 1.
- «For the labour prowess» — 246;
- «For the labour merit» — 293;
- «In commemoration of the 300th anniversary of St.-Petersburg» — 490;
- «300 years of the Russian fleet» — 1 094.
- «The Honoured designer of the Russian Federation» — 17;
- «The Honored worker of science of the Russian Federation» — 1;
- The rank of the Hero of Socialist Labour — 6.